EL - 250
Advanced Analog Circuits
Lab #4: The Operational Amplifier
Andrew Buettner
Objective
The objective of this lab is to construct several amplifier circuits using operational amplifiers, then to test the operation of those amplifiers and compare the results with theoretical values obtained through calculation.
Equipment Used
1) Trainer #
2) Multimeter #
3) Oscilloscope #
4) Audio function generator #
5) Various components from the EL - 250 lab kit
Procedure
A: Inverting Op - Amp Amplifier
1) Assemble the following circuit:
2) Set the input voltage to 2VAC.
3) Measure the voltage produced at the output.
4) Calculate the theoretical voltage at the output and compare the two results.
B: Non - inverting Op - Amp Amplifier
1) Assemble the following circuit:
2) Set the input voltage to 2VAC.
3) Measure the voltage produced at the output.
4) Calculate the theoretical voltage at the output and compare the two results.
C: Multiple Op - Amp Amplifier
1) Assemble the following circuit:
2) Set the input voltage to 2VAC.
3) Measure the voltage produced at the output.
4) Calculate the theoretical voltage at the output and compare the two results.
Data
1) Diagram 1: Schematic 1 Enlarged View
2) Diagram 2: Schematic 2 Enlarged View
3) Diagram 3: Schematic 3 Enlarged View
4) Table 1: Voltage Results (`-' means 180^{o} out of phase)
Amplifier type: |
Actual |
Theoretical |
% Error |
---|---|---|---|
Inverting |
-4V |
-4V |
0.00% |
Non-inverting |
6V |
6V |
0.00% |
Cascaded |
-17V |
-24V |
29.2% |
Conclusions
From this lab it is concluded that an Operational Amplifier can be used to create a working amplifier that exhibits a predicable pattern. In addition to the tests that I performed in accordance with the lab, I also tested the amplifier with other functions (square wave, triangle wave, sawtooth wave), and it performed as exceptionally. I am pleased to find that the operational amplifier follows the mathematical equations very well. Although I am not sure of the error in the cascaded amplifier, there may have just been an errant observation.
Attachments
Original lab handout
Original lab data
Calculations